A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that may encapsulate (surround) or be located next to a tumor. Based on its location in the brain, a cyst can cause symptoms such as headache, pain, seizures, or a neurological deficit. Cysts can be surgically removed or drained. If a cyst is not causing neurological difficulties, the doctor will conduct ongoing MRI and CT scans to observe its growth pattern.
Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that can cause tumors in various parts of the central nervous system (CNS). There are two types of neurofibromatosis. Type 1, the more common kind, usually occurs outside of the CNS. Type 2 occurs within the CNS. Type 2 neurofibromatosis causes multiple CNS tumors, including neurofibromas, multiple meningiomas, bilateral vestibular schwannomas, optic nerve gliomas, and spinal cord tumors. Symptoms include loss of balance, tinnitus, total hearing loss, facial pain or numbness, and headache. Surgery is the standard treatment.
This condition is not a brain tumor, but its symptoms mimic a brain tumor. Pseudotumor Cerebri most commonly afflicts obese adolescent girls and young women. Symptoms include headaches, blurred vision, dizziness, and a slight numbness of the face. The symptoms are caused by a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Treatment is given to relieve the symptoms, particularly visual impairment. Treatment may include repeated lumbar punctures or medications to decrease CSF. In severe cases, a shunt may be needed.
Tuberous Sclerosis is a genetic disorder that causes numerous neurological and physical symptoms, including tumors of the CNS, eyes, and kidneys. Most cases occur in children under 20 years of age. About fifty percent of tuberous sclerosis patients develop brain tumors. Subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas are the most common type, but other tumor types are also associated with this condition. Most patients suffer from seizures. Treatment may involve inserting a shunt to prevent hydrocephalus (water on the brain). Surgery is another treatment option.